수판 이론 9 : 참고문헌 2

수판 이론 9 : 참고문헌 2

 (The Hydroplate Theory ; What's ahead)

by Walt Brown Ph.D.

<아래 글에 이어서>


A typical cross section of the Mid-Oceanic Ridge is shown in Figure 73. The ridge’s temperature generally increases with depth. However, the walls of these cracks in the Mid-Oceanic Ridge are cooled by cold water circulating down into and up out of them by natural convection. The cracks act as chimneys; hotter rock below serves as the heat source. After several thousand years of cooling, the constant temperature line corresponding to the Curie point should be as shown by the long dashed line. As a rock particle cools from 579°C to 577°C, for example, it takes on the magnetism of the earth’s magnetic field at that point. Therefore, more magnetized material would be near each fracture. Magnetic anomalies would also occur perpendicular to the ridge, along fracture zones - as they do. According to plate tectonics, such perpendicular magnetic anomalies should not exist. Naturally, if a device measuring magnetic intensity (a magnetometer ) is towed across the ridge, it will show the magnetic anomalies of Figure 45 on page 96. These magnetic anomalies, however, are not magnetic reversals.

Incidentally, the hot water that rises from these sediment-filled cracks probably accounts for the jets of up to 400°C water that shoot up from the ocean floor. Such hydrothermal vents usually lie on the ridge axis and are intermittent as one would expect from the above explanation.

PREDICTION 4:   Fracture zones and axial and flank rifts will always be along lines of high magnetic intensity.

PREDICTION 5: The magnetic intensity above hydrothermal vents slowly increases because the more recently fractured rock below is cooling.

40. Other factors complicate the movement.

* Erosion is not necessarily the same all along the rupture.

* The Mid-Oceanic Ridge, especially in the Pacific, would not exactly follow the path of the rupture.

* A large plate moving over the earth’s surface is actually part of a spherical shell rotating about an imaginary axis passing through the center of the earth. Points on the plate far from the poles of the axis move farther than those near the poles.

* Depending on exactly where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge began to rise, the hydroplates would not necessarily slide perpendicular to the entire Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In fact, the Americas Plate rotated about 10° clockwise during its slide, and the European-Asian-African Plate rotated about 10° counterclockwise. (This implies that the Mid-Atlantic Ridge began to rise south of the centers of mass of each hydroplate, very near the present equator.)

* The crust was depressed on Pacific side of the earth. See “The Origin of Oceanic Trenches”on pages 127-145.

41. T. McKenny Hughes, “Bursting Rock Surfaces,” Geological Magazine, Vol. 3, 1887, pp. 511-512.

42. J. P. Den Hartog, Advanced Strength of Materials (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952), pp. 141-171.

43. In past years, the United States Government has considered funding a 3-year, 45-million dollar project to drill a deep hole into the southern Appalachian Mountains. The hole was intended:

... to test among other things, the hypothesis that a sheet of crystalline rock about 10 kilometers thick was shoved 225 kilometers westward over underlying sedimentary rock by a continental collision. In 1979, despite the seeming improbability that such a thin sheet would hold together like that, deep seismic reflection profiling revealed a layer that is presumably the previously proposed boundary between the crystalline sheet and the underlying sedimentary rock. The hole would penetrate this reflector of seismic waves at a depth of about 8 or 9 kilometers and return samples to verify its nature. Richard A. Kerr, “Continental Drilling Heading Deeper,” Science, Vol. 224, 29 June 1984, p. 1418.

Of course, the hydroplate theory explains why and how a thin sheet of rock moved westward. It was not “shoved” for reasons given on page 337. It gained its velocity by gravitational sliding and, therefore, incurred no internal stresses. The thrusting of an 8-9 kilometer layer for 225 kilometers should no longer be an enigma.

Such a drilling project could also be extremely dangerous. If the prediction of water under buckled portions of mountains is correct, then this drilling project might have disastrous consequences. Upward-escaping, high-pressure water would quickly erode and greatly enlarge the drilled hole. As water escaped from beneath the mountain range, major earthquakes could occur.

44. “A layer of aqueous fluids could produce the conductance observed in Tibet with a lower fluid fraction and/or layer thickness than considered above for partial melt. For example, a layer only 1.6 km thick containing 10% of 100 S/m brine would be needed to yield the observed 10,000-S conductance.” Wenbo Wie et al., “Detection of Widespread Fluids in the Tibetan Crust by Magnetotelluric Studies,” Science, Vol. 292, 27 April 2001, p. 718.

45. The compression event formed mountains by bending and crushing hydroplates at their weakest regions. Compressing a long, thin object, such as a yardstick, produces no bending or displacement until the compressive force reaches a certain critical amount. Once this threshold is exceeded, the yardstick (or any compressed beam or plate) “snaps” into a bowed position. Further compression bows it up even more. Buckling a hydroplate at one point bends adjacent portions.

Linear mountain chains were also pushed up by crushing hydroplates. Where the compression exceeded the crushing strength of granite, the plate thickened and shortened. The collapse of strength in the crushed region increased the load on adjacent regions, causing them to crush and the mountain chain to lengthen. Therefore, bending and crushing rapidly lifted mountain chains.

46. As each mountain suddenly rose, its distance from earth’s spin axis increased. This, in turn, increased each mountain’s centrifugal force (blue arrow in Figure 74a), a force that always acts away from and perpendicular to the spin axis. (A rock whirled at the end of a string produces an outward, or centrifugal, force that pulls the string taut.)

Figure 74: Earth’s Big Roll. (A) If the earth were perfectly spherical and the black mountain (black triangle) suddenly formed, the earth would become unbalanced and start “rolling” counterclockwise. This happens because a centrifugal force, shown in blue, acts on the mountain. That blue force is equivalent to the combined forces Hm and Vm (red arrows). Force Hm is always directed toward the new equator, shown in (B). The roll would not change earth’s north-south spin axis or its yearly orbit around the Sun. (See Figure 75.)

 Figure 75: Fixed Axis. Some have expressed surprise that the earth’s axis in Figure 74B would keep its north-south orientation during “earth’s big roll.” A simple experiment demonstrates this, and shows that one good experiment is worth a thousand expert opinions. Drill two shallow holes on opposite sides of a croquet ball and fill both holes with lead. If the ball is spun with the lead-filled holes not at the equator, the spin axis does not change as the ball quickly rotates so the lead is at the equator. (When spinning, the white stripes reveal the orientation of the ball and axis.) However, the quickest way to see that the earth’s axis would not change its orientation is to apply the law of the conservation of angular momentum. It assures us that a rigid body’s spin axis will not change unless an external torque acts on the body.

Part of each new mountain’s centrifugal force acted tangentially to the earth’s surface and tended to roll the earth. Because mountains are scattered around the earth, most of these “rolling” forces counterbalanced each other. However, the Himalayas and its plateau are so massive that their effect dominates all other mountains. (The world’s ten highest peaks relative to sea level - including Mount Everest - are part of the Himalayas.) In other words, the compression event created mountains whose centrifugal forces rolled the earth so that the Himalayas moved toward today’s equator. Also, the thickened, massive Eurasian hydroplate helped roll the globe in the same direction.

 C) Actually, the earth is not a perfect sphere, but has an equatorial bulge which gives our planet great stability. We can think of the bulge as a big brown hoop around the equator. This bulge, exaggerated above, is produced by centrifugal forces acting to deform every particle inside the earth. (D) The more a mountain rolled the earth, the more the bulge tilted and the greater its force Hb became. When the initial roll stopped, Hb equaled Hm   in magnitude. This roll angle was small, because the bulge is so much more massive than any mountain.

The equatorial bulge did not remain tipped, as shown in (D), for long. The bulge exists, remember, because every particle inside and on the earth has its own centrifugal force which tries to move each particle as far from the earth’s axis as gravity will allow. Material inside the earth deformed as the bulge slowly reoriented itself along a new equator, perpendicular to the north-south spin axis. (The brown hoop can be thought of as slipping over the spherical portion of the earth toward the new equator when Hb becomes large enough to overcome friction.) Each slight reduction in the bulge’stilt reduced Hb, so the mountain rolled the earth counterclockwise another small increment. The North Pole, the point where the spin axis penetrates the Northern Hemisphere, shifted. This cycle continued many times until all the earth’s mass was balanced.

Because the diameter of the equatorial bulge is 26.5 miles greater than the polar diameter, the brittle crust stretched and ripped a short distance with each cycle. The rip’s beginning is shown in green in Figure 74D. Fracture mechanics caused it to begin slightly north of the old equator and extend north to and slightly beyond the new equator. Magma quickly flowed up into this rip which eventually grew 3,000 miles and is today called Ninety East Ridge. It is inclined 6º to longitude 90ºE and can be seen in Figure 41 on page 95. Notice how Ninety East Ridge points toward the Himalayas, earth’s dominant mountain range which the black mountain in (A)-(D) represents. The rip at 90ºE longitude reduced the stress tending to cause a similar rip on the opposite side of earth.

Fortunately, earth’s spin has created an equatorial bulge that acts like a big gyroscope stabilizing the earth. As the earth began a slight roll immediately after the compression event, the equatorial bulge also rotated, so it was no longer perpendicular to the spin axis. The more the bulge rotated, the more its centrifugal force counteracted the rolling force due to the Himalayas and thickened Eurasian hydroplate. (Please study all of Figure 74.)

The liquid outer core partially isolated the solid inner core from this rolling action. However, as the outer earth began to roll a total of about 45°, it would have received, as it slipped over the core, a large torque from inside. The law of conservation of angular momentum required the outer earth’s spin axis to precess, with the North Pole in Figure 74C precessing into the page. (The last paragraph in Figure 74 explains how the amount of precessing, 6°, was determined.) An equal and opposite torque was applied by the outer earth to the inner core, causing its axis to precess in the opposite direction. So the outer earth and the inner core had different spin orientations after the compression event. This difference gradually diminished as the fluid in the outer core transmitted torque between the two spinning bodies, the inner core and outer earth, slowly reversing the earlier precessions. This explains Dodwell’s measurements of earth’s changing axis which he concluded began in about the year 2345 B.C. Perhaps changes in earth’s spin axis in the centuries after the flood motivated construction of ancient observatories such as Stonehenge.

Earth’s magnetic field is generated in the liquid outer core, so these stirrings in the outer core may explain the rapid changes in the earth’s magnetic field noted on page 97. Both the stirrings and outpouring of so much magma onto the earth’s surface occurred immediately after the compression event.

47. As explained in he southern extreme of Ninety East Ridge (85°E, 32.5°S) was slightly north of the old equator, and the Himalayas (centered at 89°E, 33°N) could have been slightly south ofthe old North Pole but near what is now 89°E longitude. This would place the old North Pole near the line segment lying between 85°E, 57.5°N and 89°E, 33°N - basically central Asia.

48. Remains of a horse, bear, beaver, badger, shrew, wolverine, rabbit, and considerable temperate vegetation were found on Canada’s Ellesmere Island, inside the Arctic Circle. Such animals and plants today require temperatures about 15°C warmer in the winter and 10°C warmer in the summer.  [See Richard H. Tedford and C. Richard Harington, “An Arctic Mammal Fauna from the Early Pliocene of North America,” Nature, Vol. 425, 25 September 2003, pp. 388-390.]

Ellesmere Island and Axel Heiberg Island, immediately to the west, have the largest known contrast between current temperatures and inferred ancient temperatures based on fossils. Both islands straddle 85°W longitude. Therefore, regions along this longitude experienced one of the greatest northward shifts in latitude following the flood. This means the region presently occupied by today’s North Pole rolled north approximately along 85°W longitude (while the preflood North Pole rolled south along 95°E longitude).

Isotopic studies of the cellulose in redwood trees on Axel Heiberg Island show that they grew in a climate similar to today’s coastal forests of Oregon (35° farther south in latitude).  [See A. Hope Jahren, “Humidity Estimate for the Middle Eocene Arctic Rain Forest,” Geology, Vol. 31, No. 5, May 2003, pp. 463?466.] All of this suggests that the preflood North Pole rolled about 35° south along95°E longitude, comparable to the location given in Endnote 47.

49. Allan C. Ashworth and F. Christian Thompson, “A Fly in the Biogeographic Ointment,” Nature, Vol. 423, 8 May 2003, p. 135.

50. Charles Berlitz, The Lost Ship of Noah: In Search of the Ark at Ararat (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1987), p. 126.

51. Marble Canyon was eroded by the waters of Grand Lake, while the Grand Canyon was eroded by the waters of both Grand and Hopi Lakes. In 1988, using geological and topological features, I discovered and announced the location of the former Grand Lake. This explanation was published for the first time in the fifth edition of In the Beginning (1989). Hopi Lake had been described previously. [See R. B. Scarborough, “Cenozoic Erosion and Sedimentation in Arizona,” Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology, 16 November 1984.]

Figure 76: Grand and Hopi Lakes. The “funnel” region, carved by Grand Lake, is marked by the red circle.  (See Figures 77-79 for other perspectives.)

Figure 77: “Funnel” from the South. This computer generated picture is based on U.S. Geological Survey Digital Elevation Models (DEM) with an accuracy of 30 feet. The picture appears as it would at an elevation of 13,000 feet above the ground. Marble Canyon, in the center, separates Vermilion Cliffs from Echo Cliffs. The funnel-shaped region, bounded by blue arrows, marks where Grand Lake breached its boundary and dumped its contents over northern Arizona. Marble Canyon and the Grand Canyon (30 miles to the southwest) were carved in weeks. Grand Lake was located northeast of the blue arrows, behind the “funnel.”

Catastrophic dumping of Grand Lake took place through what is now the gap between Echo Cliffs and Vermilion Cliffs. Before this natural dam eroded, both cliffs were a single face of a block-faulted mountain. Release of Grand Lake’s vast waters first eroded hundreds of meters of relatively soft Mesozoic sediments off northern Arizona. Once surface erosion was completed, down cutting through the harder Kaibab limestone began. As erosion cut deeper beneath the water table, more water, under greater pressure, was released from the water-saturated sediments flanking the canyon. This escaping water cut dozens of side canyons entering the Grand Canyon - large canyons which today are unexplained because they have no significant surface flow entering them. Subsurface flow and landslides were extreme.

The weight of material removed from northern Arizona produced isostatic uplifts that account for the uplift of the Kaibab Plateau. This produced much faulting and volcanism, the “barbed” canyons, and layered strata that dip down and away from Marble Canyon and Grand Canyon.

Figure 78: Satellite Photograph of “Funnel.”

 Figure 79: “Funnel” from Above. This computer-generated picture resembles a photograph taken from 35,000 feet above the “barbed” side canyons feeding into the Colorado River. The water that carved the barbed canyons flowed (yellow arrows) in a direction opposite to the flow of the Colorado River today (red arrows). Endnote 51 explains how this happened. Notice the “funnel” in the top right corner. A giant, high-pressure hose, squirting from the upper right corner in the direction of the red arrows, would carve the funnel nicely.

What are barbed canyons? Side streams almost always enter their main stream at acute angles. However, drainage through the “barbed” canyons enters the Colorado River at obtuse angles. These canyons are called “barbed” because their backward orientation on a map reminds one of barbed wire. Except for rare cloudbursts directly overhead, little drainage occurs today through these giant side canyons. So what cut them, and why are they backwards? The answer lies in the northward dip of the land shortly after the vast weight of rock to the south was suddenly eroded by the dumping of Grand and Hopi Lakes. Thus, the surface drainage pattern was temporarily reversed for waters spilling out of Echo and Vermilion Cliffs and elsewhere. (See Figures 77-79.)

The Grand Canyon seems to have been carved a few centuries after the flood - after animals and humans migrated to the region. Two varieties of squirrels occupy the Grand Canyon region: the white-tailed Kaibab squirrel to the north and the dark-tailed Albert squirrel to the south. They are obviously related and, except for coloring, are indistinguishable. Each lives on an isolated plateau separated by several hostile environments and the 250-mile-long Grand Canyon. How could even one squirrel (let alone a male and female) traverse that formidable barrier? Probably the Grand Canyon was recently cut through an area occupied by the common ancestors of the Albert and Kaibab squirrels. Since then, the two populations, having slightly different gene pools and unable to interbreed, developed different coloring - a classic case of microevolution. [See John R. Meyer, “Origin of the Kaibab Squirrel,” Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 22, September 1985, pp. 68-78.]

A Navajo legend about the Grand Canyon may give another reason for dating it several centuries after the global flood.

A great [local] flood threatened to drown the Navajo’s ancestors. Suddenly an outlet was formed by rushing waters. The Navajo survived the flood by being transformed temporarily into fish. The outlet the flood waters formed is the Grand Canyon.

This legend says that a local flood inundated northern Arizona, perhaps from the breaching of Grand and Hopi Lakes. Survivors discovered the newly formed Grand Canyon, still carrying runoff from the local flood. Therefore, the Grand Canyon formed while people occupied that area.

Other Native Americans, the Hualapai, have a similar legend that tells of a flood that covered the world. The Creator sent word to dig a huge hole to drain the land. As the waters receded, the Grand Canyon was left behind.

52. Some geologists have wondered if quartz migrated out of the black rock. One look at the sharp boundary between the light veins and the dark host rock should eliminate that possibility.  Incidentally, quartz is the first common mineral to melt as rock heats up and the last to solidify as it cools.

53. Other forces, such as viscous, electrical, magnetic, and gravitational forces, can be eliminated on other grounds. Because few would even entertain them as a means of breaking so much rock, we will not discuss them.  

54. For details, see William Ryan and Walter Pitman, Noah’s Flood (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1998). These authors correctly conclude that the Mediterranean Sea breached its boundary, carved the Bosporus and Dardanelles Straits, and flooded the shores of the Black Sea. “The channel cut through bedrock” formed a “gorge more than 350 feet deep” (p. 65). Ryan and Pitman incorrectly conclude that this led to the “myth” of Noah’s flood. Instead, the local flood they discovered was a consequence of the global flood.

This local flood around the Black Sea bears no resemblance to many details in famous flood legends, secular or otherwise. Nor would any local flood explain the uncanny similarity of flood stories in practically every ancient culture around the world. A global flood does. Furthermore, a child could have walked away unscathed from Ryan and Pitman’s flood, which they admit rose only 6 inches a day. Undoubtedly, the Middle East experienced many local floods in the ancient past. Why pick one and claim it led to the world-famous story of Noah’s flood?

55. These microscopic movements inside the earth generate heat thousands of times faster than heat escapes at the earth’s surface. This increasing heat melts rock which can then lubricate and facilitate further internal movements. We have no evidence that earthquakes are occurring at a greater rate than 100 or 1,000 years ago, although today we can better detect earthquakes and broadcast their consequences. Also, larger population densities result in greater destruction from earthquakes. Today’s greater destruction and global communication have led some to conclude incorrectly that earthquake frequencies have increased. Still, earthquake frequencies could someday increase substantially, because heat should be building up inside the earth.

56. Harry W. Green II, “Solving the Paradox of Deep Earthquakes,” Scientific American, Vol. 271, No. 3, September 1994, pp. 64-71.

57. Earthquakes have two mechanisms. This is best shown by their distribution with depth. Earthquake frequencies peak at two depths: 35 kilometers and 600 kilometers. Above and below each of these depths, fewer earthquakes occur. After shocks also cluster near these depths. [See Cliff Frohlich, “Deep Earthquakes,” Scientific American, Vol. 260, January 1989, p. 52.]

58. Maya Tolstoy et al., “Breathing of the Seafloor: Tidal Correlations of Seismicity at Axial Volcano,” Geology, Vol. 30, No. 6, June 2002, pp. 503-506.

59. “El Nino,” a sudden warming of waters in the western Pacific, occurs every few years and alters climate worldwide, especially precipitation.

60. Of the various lapse rates (temperature change per unit change in elevation), the dry adiabatic lapse rate, 28.3°F per mile, or 9.8°C per kilometer, is most appropriate for this illustration.

61. The earliest recorded fish in Lake Titicaca were Orestias, a genus of killifish. In 1937, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Department stocked the lake with trout which then ate the killifish and their food, wiping them out in a decade. How did killifish get in such a remote lake, 2.3 miles above sea level - naturally or by man? Humans do not desire killifish for food or sport. Besides, men would have difficulty keeping any fish or their eggs alive while transporting them by foot from some distant source to Lake Titicaca. Could the fish have gotten there by swimming? Hardly. Because of strong winds, intense sunshine, and low atmospheric pressure, 95% of Lake Titicaca’s water leaves by evaporation. Only 5% trickles into a distant, shrinking, brackish lake with no outlet to the sea.

Evidently, Lake Titicaca rose along with the Andes. Did this happen thousands or millions of years ago? Knowing how rapidly environments can change and destroy habitats, one would be wise to bet on a recent date.

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링크 - http://www.creationscience.com/onlinebook/HydroplateOverview8.html

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